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Using Jetty 9.2

These pages are examples and do not reflect any normative requirements or assumptions on the part of the IdP software. The official information about containers and versions we support is solely maintained on the SystemRequirements page. If you wish to operate without responsibility for your Java servlet container, you should consider the Windows package we provide that includes an embedded container.

The following conventions are used this document:

  • /opt/shibboleth-idp is used to indicate that an absolute path to the IdP installation directory is required
  • idp.home refers to the IdP installation directory (as specified during the installation process)
  • JETTY_HOME refers to the location of the Jetty installation (jetty-dist-$VERSION)
  • JETTY_BASE refers to the directory containing your deployment-specific Jetty configuration files
  • All paths are relative to JETTY_BASE unless otherwise noted

We strongly recommend placing all IdP-specific Jetty configuration under JETTY_BASE to facilitate Jetty upgrades.

If you have used the Windows Installer to install Jetty then none of the changes below can be made. If you need such changes then you should install and maintain Jetty yourself (and use the instructions below)

Version Notes

There are no known issues with any specific Jetty 9.2 release. The latest stable version should be used.

JETTY_BASE Layout

A typical JETTY_BASE directory for the IdP webapp contains the following files, each of which will be described in the following sections.

  • start.ini
  • etc/jetty-requestlog.xml (optional)
  • etc/jetty-ssl.xml
  • etc/jetty-https.xml
  • start.d/http.ini
  • start.d/https.ini
  • start.d/ssl.ini
  • lib/ext/jetty9-dta-ssl-1.0.0.jar (optional)
  • lib/logging/jcl-over-slf4j-1.7.7.jar (optional)

  • lib/logging/logback-access-1.1.2.jar (optional)

  • lib/logging/logback-classic-1.1.2.jar (optional)

  • lib/logging/logback-core-1.1.2.jar (optional)

  • lib/logging/slf4j-api-1.7.12.jar (optional)
  • resources/logback.xml (optional)
  • resources/logback-access.xml (optional)

  • webapps/idp.xml
  • tmp (optional)

Required Configuration

Configure Jetty Modules and JVM Settings

File(s): start.ini

Create a JETTY_BASE/start.ini file with the following contents.

start.ini
# Required Jetty modules
--module=server
--module=deploy
--module=annotations
--module=resources
--module=logging
--module=requestlog
--module=servlets
--module=jsp
--module=jstl
--module=ext
--module=plus
 
# Allows setting Java system properties (-Dname=value)
# and JVM flags (-X, -XX) in this file
# NOTE: spawns child Java process
--exec
 
# Uncomment if IdP is installed somewhere other than /opt/shibboleth-idp
#-Didp.home=/path/to/shibboleth-idp

# Alternate garbage collector that reduces memory needed for larger metadata files
-XX:+UseG1GC

# Maximum amount of memory that Jetty may use, at least 1.5G is recommended
# for handling larger (> 25M) metadata files but you will need to test on
# your particular metadata configuration
-Xmx1500m

# Maximum amount of memory allowed for the JVM permanent generation (Java 7 only)
-XX:MaxPermSize=128m

Configure HTTP Connectors

File(s): /opt/shibboleth-idp/credentials/idp-browser.p12etc/jetty-ssl.xml, etc/jetty-https.xml, start.d/http.ini, start.d/https.ini, start.d/ssl.ini

Jetty listens on ports 8080 and 8443 for user-facing web traffic by default. In order to serve requests at the default HTTP/HTTPS ports one of the following is required.

  1. Change the ports to 80/443 in jetty configuration files and use the setuid extension to support listening on the privileged ports as a non-root user.
  2. Use a port forwarding approach (load balancer, iptables rules, etc).

Copy the following files from JETTY_HOME/demo-base/start.d to JETTY_BASE/start.d:

  1. http.ini
  2. https.ini
  3. ssl.ini 

If you elect to change the default listening ports, modify the http.port property in http.ini and https.port in https.ini accordingly.

Modify ssl.ini so that it contains the following properties:

jetty.keystore=/opt/shibboleth-idp/credentials/idp-browser.p12
jetty.keystore.type=PKCS12
jetty.keystore.password=thepasswordgoeshere

If you have deployed the IdP to an alternate location, change the path of jetty.keystore accordingly. The idp-browser.p12 file is a PKCS12 file containing the X.509 certificate and private key used to secure the HTTPS channel that users access during authentication and other browser-based message exchanges involving the IdP. This is generally the one you get from a browser-compatible CA.

Create the following files using the sample configurations that follow as a starting point.

  1. JETTY_BASE/etc/jetty-ssl.xml
  2. JETTY_BASE/etc/jetty-https.xml

jetty-ssl.xml
<?xml version="1.0"?>
<!DOCTYPE Configure PUBLIC "-//Jetty//Configure//EN" "http://www.eclipse.org/jetty/configure_9_0.dtd">
<Configure id="Server" class="org.eclipse.jetty.server.Server">
  <!-- ============================================================= -->
  <!-- TLS context factory without client auth                       -->
  <!-- ============================================================= -->
  <New id="sslContextFactory" class="org.eclipse.jetty.util.ssl.SslContextFactory">
    <Set name="KeyStorePath"><Property name="jetty.keystore" /></Set>
    <Set name="KeyStoreType"><Property name="jetty.keystore.type" /></Set>
    <Set name="KeyStorePassword"><Property name="jetty.keystore.password" /></Set>
    <Set name="EndpointIdentificationAlgorithm"></Set>
    <Set name="NeedClientAuth">false</Set>
    <Set name="WantClientAuth">false</Set>
    <Set name="excludeProtocols">
      <Array type="String">
        <Item>SSL SSLv2 SSLv3</Item>
      </Array>
    </Set>
	<!-- If you're on Java 8, you can use these regular expressions instead. -->
	<!--
  	<Set name="IncludeCipherSuites">
	  <Array type="java.lang.String">
        <Item>TLS_ECDHE.*</Item>
        <Item>TLS_RSA.*</Item>
	  </Array>
	</Set>
	<Set name="ExcludeCipherSuites">
      <Array type="String">
        <Item>.*NULL.*</Item>
        <Item>.*RC4.*</Item>
        <Item>.*MD5.*</Item>
        <Item>.*DES.*</Item>
        <Item>.*DSS.*</Item>
      </Array>
	</Set>
	-->
 	<Set name="IncludeCipherSuites">
      <Array type="String">
        <Item>TLS_ECDHE_ECDSA_WITH_AES_128_GCM_SHA256</Item>
        <Item>TLS_ECDHE_ECDSA_WITH_AES_256_GCM_SHA384</Item>
        <Item>TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_GCM_SHA256</Item>
        <Item>TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_256_GCM_SHA384</Item>
        <Item>TLS_ECDHE_ECDSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA256</Item>
        <Item>TLS_ECDHE_ECDSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA384</Item>
        <Item>TLS_ECDHE_ECDSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA</Item>
        <Item>TLS_ECDHE_ECDSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA</Item>
        <Item>TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA256</Item>
        <Item>TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA384</Item>
        <Item>TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA</Item>
        <Item>TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA</Item>
        <Item>TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_128_GCM_SHA256</Item>
        <Item>TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_256_GCM_SHA384</Item>
        <Item>TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA256</Item>
        <Item>TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA256</Item>
        <Item>TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA</Item>
        <Item>TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA</Item>
      </Array>
    </Set>
  </New>
 
  <!-- =========================================================== -->
  <!-- Create a TLS specific HttpConfiguration based on the        -->
  <!-- common HttpConfiguration defined in jetty.xml               -->
  <!-- Add a SecureRequestCustomizer to extract certificate and    -->
  <!-- session information                                         -->
  <!-- =========================================================== -->
  <New id="sslHttpConfig" class="org.eclipse.jetty.server.HttpConfiguration">
    <Arg><Ref refid="httpConfig"/></Arg>
    <Call name="addCustomizer">
      <Arg><New class="org.eclipse.jetty.server.SecureRequestCustomizer"/></Arg>
    </Call>
  </New>
</Configure>
jetty-https.xml
<!DOCTYPE Configure PUBLIC "-//Jetty//Configure//EN" "http://www.eclipse.org/jetty/configure_9_0.dtd">

<!-- ============================================================= -->
<!-- Configure HTTPS connectors.                                   -->
<!-- This configuration must be used in conjunction with jetty.xml -->
<!-- and jetty-ssl.xml.                                            -->
<!-- ============================================================= -->
<Configure id="Server" class="org.eclipse.jetty.server.Server">
  <!-- ============================================================= -->
  <!-- Anonymous (no client TLS) HTTPS connector                     -->
  <!-- ============================================================= -->
  <Call id="httpsConnector" name="addConnector">
    <Arg>
      <New class="org.eclipse.jetty.server.ServerConnector">
        <Arg name="server"><Ref refid="Server" /></Arg>
        <Arg name="acceptors" type="int"><Property name="ssl.acceptors" default="-1"/></Arg>
        <Arg name="selectors" type="int"><Property name="ssl.selectors" default="-1"/></Arg>
        <Arg name="factories">
          <Array type="org.eclipse.jetty.server.ConnectionFactory">
            <Item>
              <New class="org.eclipse.jetty.server.SslConnectionFactory">
                <Arg name="next">http/1.1</Arg>
                <Arg name="sslContextFactory"><Ref refid="sslContextFactory"/></Arg>
              </New>
            </Item>
            <Item>
              <New class="org.eclipse.jetty.server.HttpConnectionFactory">
                <Arg name="config"><Ref refid="sslHttpConfig"/></Arg>
              </New>
            </Item>
          </Array>
        </Arg>
        <Set name="host"><Property name="jetty.host" /></Set>
        <Set name="port"><Property name="https.port" /></Set>
        <Set name="idleTimeout"><Property name="https.timeout" default="30000"/></Set>
        <Set name="soLingerTime"><Property name="https.soLingerTime" default="-1"/></Set>
        <Set name="acceptorPriorityDelta"><Property name="ssl.acceptorPriorityDelta" default="0"/></Set>
        <Set name="selectorPriorityDelta"><Property name="ssl.selectorPriorityDelta" default="0"/></Set>
        <Set name="acceptQueueSize"><Property name="https.acceptQueueSize" default="0"/></Set>
      </New>
    </Arg>
  </Call>
</Configure>

Configure IdP Context Descriptor

File(s): webapps/idp.xml

In order to deploy the IdP, Jetty must be informed of the location of the IdP war file. This file is called a context descriptor and the recommended content is provided below. Since the following example relies upon the idp.home System Property being set, it must either be defined in start.ini, or included in the command line string used to start Jetty.

Note this file controls the context path to which the application is deployed, which is /idp in the following configuration block.

idp.xml
<Configure class="org.eclipse.jetty.webapp.WebAppContext">
  <Set name="war"><SystemProperty name="idp.home"/>/war/idp.war</Set>
  <Set name="contextPath">/idp</Set>
  <Set name="extractWAR">false</Set>
  <Set name="copyWebDir">false</Set>
  <Set name="copyWebInf">true</Set>
</Configure>

Recommended Configuration

Jetty Logging

File(s): etc/jetty-requestlog.xml, resources/logback.xml, resources/logback-access.xml

The recommended approach is to use logback for all Jetty logging. The logback and slf4j libraries are needed to support this configuration and must be copied into  JETTY_BASE/lib/logging.

  1. From the slf4j distribution, copy in slf4j-api-version.jar
  2. From the logback distribution, copy in logback-classic-version.jar, logback-core-version.jar, and logback-access-version.jar
  3. Configure Jetty to use logback for request logging by creating JETTY_BASE/etc/jetty-requestlog.xml with the following content:

    jetty-requestlog.xml
    <?xml version="1.0"?>
    <!DOCTYPE Configure PUBLIC "-//Jetty//Configure//EN" "http://www.eclipse.org/jetty/configure_9_0.dtd">
    
    <!-- =============================================================== -->
    <!-- Configure the Jetty Request Log                                 -->
    <!-- =============================================================== -->
    <Configure id="Server" class="org.eclipse.jetty.server.Server">
      <!-- =========================================================== -->
      <!-- Configure Request Log -->
      <!-- =========================================================== -->
      <Ref refid="Handlers">
        <Call name="addHandler">
          <Arg>
            <New id="RequestLog" class="org.eclipse.jetty.server.handler.RequestLogHandler">
              <Set name="requestLog">
                <New id="RequestLogImpl" class="ch.qos.logback.access.jetty.RequestLogImpl">
                  <Set name="fileName"><Property name="jetty.base" default="." />/resources/logback-access.xml</Set>
                </New>
              </Set>
            </New>
          </Arg>
        </Call>
      </Ref>
    </Configure>
    

    Configure logging policy for Jetty internals logging and request logging. Sample logback configuration files are provided for convenience.

    logback.xml
    <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
    <configuration scan="true">
        <appender name="jetty" class="ch.qos.logback.core.rolling.RollingFileAppender">
            <File>${jetty.base}/logs/jetty.log</File>
            
            <rollingPolicy class="ch.qos.logback.core.rolling.TimeBasedRollingPolicy">
                <FileNamePattern>${jetty.base}/logs/jetty-%d{yyyy-MM-dd}.log.gz</FileNamePattern>
            </rollingPolicy>
    
            <encoder class="ch.qos.logback.classic.encoder.PatternLayoutEncoder">
                <charset>UTF-8</charset>
                <Pattern>%date{HH:mm:ss.SSS} - %level [%logger:%line] - %msg%n</Pattern>
            </encoder>
        </appender>
      
        <root level="INFO">
            <appender-ref ref="jetty" />
        </root>
        <logger name="org.springframework" level="OFF" />
        <logger name="ch.qos.logback" level="WARN" />
    </configuration>
    logback-access.xml
    <configuration>
      <statusListener class="ch.qos.logback.core.status.OnConsoleStatusListener" />  
      <appender name="FILE" class="ch.qos.logback.core.rolling.RollingFileAppender">
        <file>${jetty.base}/logs/access.log</file>
        <rollingPolicy class="ch.qos.logback.core.rolling.TimeBasedRollingPolicy">
          <fileNamePattern>${jetty.base}/logs/access-%d{yyyy-MM-dd}.log.gz</fileNamePattern>
        </rollingPolicy>
        <encoder>
          <pattern>combined</pattern>
        </encoder>
      </appender>
     
      <appender-ref ref="FILE" />
    </configuration>

Temporary Files

Jetty will use /tmp as a staging area for unpacking the warfile, and if you have cron jobs sweeping that for old files, the IdP will be disrupted. You will want to create JETTY_BASE/tmp, and add the following configuration directive to JETTY_BASE/start.ini:

-Djava.io.tmpdir=tmp

Optional Configuration

Supporting SOAP Endpoints

File(s): /opt/shibboleth-idp/credentials/idp-backchannel.p12etc/jetty-ssl.xml, etc/jetty-https.xml, modules/backchannel.mod, start.d/backchannel.ini

The use of the back-channel is discussed in the SecurityAndNetworking topic, and you should review that to understand whether or not you need to support this feature.

If you do need this support, these connections generally require special security properties that are not appropriate for user-facing/browser use. Therefore an additional endpoint must be configured.

  1. Copy the jetty9-dta-ssl-1.0.0.jar (asc) plugin to JETTY_BASE/lib/ext
  2. Create JETTY_BASE/modules/backchannel.mod:

    [name]
    backchannel
    
    [depend]
    server
    
    [xml]
    etc/jetty-backchannel.xml
  3. Create JETTY_BASE/start.d/backchannel.ini:

    --module=backchannel
    
    jetty.backchannel.port=8443
    jetty.backchannel.sslContext.keyStorePath=/opt/shibboleth-idp/credentials/idp-backchannel.p12
    jetty.backchannel.sslContext.keyStoreType=PKCS12
    jetty.backchannel.sslContext.keyStorePassword=passwordgoeshere 
  4. Create JETTY_BASE/etc/jetty-backchannel.xml:

    jetty-backchannel.xml
    <!-- ============================================================= -->
      <!-- TLS context factory with optional client auth                 -->
      <!-- and no container trust (delegate to application)              -->
      <!-- for backchannel (SOAP) communication to IdP                   -->
      <!-- ============================================================= -->
      <New id="shibContextFactory" class="net.shibboleth.utilities.jetty9.DelegateToApplicationSslContextFactory">
        <Set name="KeyStorePath"><Property name="jetty.backchannel.keystore" /></Set>
        <Set name="KeyStoreType"><Property name="jetty.backchannel.keystore.type" /></Set>
        <Set name="KeyStorePassword"><Property name="jetty.backchannel.keystore.password" /></Set>
        <Set name="EndpointIdentificationAlgorithm"></Set>
        <Set name="excludeProtocols">
          <Array type="String">
            <Item>SSL SSLv2 SSLv3</Item>
          </Array>
        </Set>
    	<!-- If you're on Java 8, you can use these regular expressions instead. -->
    	<!--
      	<Set name="IncludeCipherSuites">
    	  <Array type="java.lang.String">
            <Item>TLS_ECDHE.*</Item>
            <Item>TLS_RSA.*</Item>
    	  </Array>
    	</Set>
    	<Set name="ExcludeCipherSuites">
          <Array type="String">
            <Item>.*NULL.*</Item>
            <Item>.*RC4.*</Item>
            <Item>.*MD5.*</Item>
            <Item>.*DES.*</Item>
            <Item>.*DSS.*</Item>
          </Array>
    	</Set>
    	-->
    	<Set name="IncludeCipherSuites">
          <Array type="String">
            <Item>TLS_ECDHE_ECDSA_WITH_AES_128_GCM_SHA256</Item>
            <Item>TLS_ECDHE_ECDSA_WITH_AES_256_GCM_SHA384</Item>
            <Item>TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_GCM_SHA256</Item>
            <Item>TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_256_GCM_SHA384</Item>
            <Item>TLS_ECDHE_ECDSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA256</Item>
            <Item>TLS_ECDHE_ECDSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA384</Item>
            <Item>TLS_ECDHE_ECDSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA</Item>
            <Item>TLS_ECDHE_ECDSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA</Item>
            <Item>TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA256</Item>
            <Item>TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA384</Item>
            <Item>TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA</Item>
            <Item>TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA</Item>
            <Item>TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_128_GCM_SHA256</Item>
            <Item>TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_256_GCM_SHA384</Item>
            <Item>TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA256</Item>
            <Item>TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA256</Item>
            <Item>TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA</Item>
            <Item>TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA</Item>
          </Array>
        </Set>
      </New>
    
      <New id="shibHttpConfig" class="org.eclipse.jetty.server.HttpConfiguration">
        <Arg><Ref refid="httpConfig"/></Arg>
        <Call name="addCustomizer">
          <Arg><New class="org.eclipse.jetty.server.SecureRequestCustomizer"/></Arg>
        </Call>
      </New>
    
      <!-- ============================================================= -->
      <!-- IdP SOAP protocol connector                                   -->
      <!-- ============================================================= -->
      <Call id="shibConnector" name="addConnector">
        <Arg>
          <New class="org.eclipse.jetty.server.ServerConnector">
            <Arg name="server"><Ref refid="Server" /></Arg>
            <Arg name="acceptors" type="int"><Property name="ssl.acceptors" default="-1"/></Arg>
            <Arg name="selectors" type="int"><Property name="ssl.selectors" default="-1"/></Arg>
            <Arg name="factories">
              <Array type="org.eclipse.jetty.server.ConnectionFactory">
                <Item>
                  <New class="org.eclipse.jetty.server.SslConnectionFactory">
                    <Arg name="next">http/1.1</Arg>
                    <Arg name="sslContextFactory"><Ref refid="shibContextFactory"/></Arg>
                  </New>
                </Item>
                <Item>
                  <New class="org.eclipse.jetty.server.HttpConnectionFactory">
                    <Arg name="config"><Ref refid="shibHttpConfig"/></Arg>
                  </New>
                </Item>
              </Array>
            </Arg>
            <Set name="host"><Property name="jetty.host" /></Set>
            <Set name="port"><Property name="jetty.backchannel.port" /></Set>
            <Set name="idleTimeout"><Property name="https.timeout" default="30000"/></Set>
            <Set name="soLingerTime"><Property name="https.soLingerTime" default="-1"/></Set>
            <Set name="acceptorPriorityDelta"><Property name="ssl.acceptorPriorityDelta" default="0"/></Set>
            <Set name="selectorPriorityDelta"><Property name="ssl.selectorPriorityDelta" default="0"/></Set>
            <Set name="acceptQueueSize"><Property name="https.acceptQueueSize" default="0"/></Set>
          </New>
        </Arg>
      </Call>

Disabling Directory Indexing

By default Jetty enables directory indexing. It's possible to turn off using the IdP's deployment descriptor, but to avoid unnecessary edits to that file, you can disable them globally if you're willing to copy and maintain a couple of additional default files from Jetty's configuration set.

To disable them globally:

  1. Copy JETTY_HOME/etc/jetty-deploy.xml and JETTY_HOME/etc/webdefault.xml into JETTY_BASE/etc
  2. Change the "dirAllowed" init parameter for the default servlet to "false".
  3. Change the reference to this file in jetty-deploy.xml by modifying the line setting the "defaultsDescriptor" property from locating the file via "jetty.home" to "jetty.base".

To disable them explicitly for the IdP only:

  1. Copy idp.home/webapp/WEB-INF/web.xml to idp.home/edit-webapp/WEB-INF/web.xml (unless you already have to make other changes).
  2. Add a servlet definition:

    <servlet>
     <servlet-name>default</servlet-name>
     <servlet-class>org.eclipse.jetty.servlet.DefaultServlet</servlet-class>
     <init-param>
       <param-name>dirAllowed</param-name>
       <param-value>false</param-value>
     </init-param>
    </servlet>
  3. Rebuild the warfile using idp.home/bin/build.sh or idp.home/bin/build.bat.

Offloading TLS

There may be situations where you wish to "offload" TLS to a load balancer or http proxy, a setup looking something like:

---(https)--->  Apache/LB ---(http)---> Jetty/Shibboleth IdP

Attempting a user login service request with the default Jetty configuration may result in an error similar to "SAML message intended destination endpoint https://hostname... did not match the recipient endpoint http://hostname...".

Jetty can be configured to consume the 'x-forwarded-proto' HTTP header to override the connection protocol originating at the load balancer, instead respecting the protocol being used between the client and the load balancer, communicated in the x-forwarded-proto header.  The Proxy / Load Balancer Configuration section of the Jetty documentation provides instruction on the required configuration.

The following example achieves that using Apache httpd's mod_proxy and mod_headers.  The last line allows passing of REMOTE_USER through to the IdP, useful for external authentication in a browser or ECP.

RequestHeader set X-Forwarded-Proto "https" env=HTTPS
ProxyPass /idp http://localhost:8080/idp connectiontimeout=5 timeout=15
RequestHeader set REMOTE-USER %{REMOTE_USER}s